CPU (Central Processing Unit)

posted by Muhammad Teguh
Oct 18

The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the part of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer’s functions. The Central Processing Unit carries out each instruction  of the program in sequence, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. This term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s. The form, design and implementation of CPU have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation remains much the same.

Components of CPU

Components of CPU  is divided into several types, namely as follows :

  1. Control unit that is able to regulate the course of the program. This component is certainly present in all CPU. CPU charge of controlling a computer so that synchronization occurs between the components work in carrying out its duties and functions of their respective operations.

The task of this control unit are:

1. Regulate and control the means of input and output.

2. Taking instructions  from main memory.

3. Retrieve data from main memory (if needed) for processing.

4. Send instructions to the ALU when there is arithmetic or logical comparisons, and oversees the work of the ALU.

5. Saving results into the main memory.


2. Register a small storage device that has a fairly high speed access, is used to store data and / or instructions that are processed. This memory is temporary, usually used to store data if or when the data for further processing. By analogy, these registers can be likened to a memory in the brain when we do data processing manually, so the brain can be likened to a CPU, which contains the memories, the control unit that regulates all activities of the body and have a place to perform calculations and logical comparisons.

3. ALU unit assigned to perform arithmetic and logic operations defined by instructions. ALU often called machine language, because ALU consists of two parts, the unit boolean arithmetic and logic units, each of which has its own task specification. The main task of the ALU is to perform all arithmetic calculations (math), which occurs in accordance with the instructions of the program. ALU perform all arithmetic operations on the basis of the sum so that the electronic circuitry used is called adder. Another task of the ALU is to make a decision of a logic operation in accordance with the instructions of the program.

4. CPU Interconnection is the connection and bus system that connects the CPU’s internal components, is ALU, control unit and the registers and also with external buses connecting the CPU with other systems, such as main memory, the device input / output.

Working of CPU.

When data and / or instructions entered into processing devices, the first time in place of RAM (via Input storage), if the form of instructions stored by the Control Unit in the program storage, but if the form data stored in working storage. If the register is ready to accept work on execution, then the Control Unit will take instruction from program storage to ditampungkan to the Instruction Register, while the memory address that contains the instructions are stored in the Program Counter. While the data taken by the Control Unit of the working storage to be accommodated in General-purpose registers (in this case in Operand registers). If the workmanship is done based instruction is arithmatika and logic, the ALU will take over the operation to do based instruction set. The result is stored in the Accumulator. If the result of processing has been completed, the Control Unit will retrieve the results of processing in the accumulator to fit back into working storage. If progress overall has been completed, the Control Unit will pick up the processing of the working storage to be accommodated to the output storage. Then later from the output storage, processing results will be displayed to the output devices.

Function of CPU.

CPU functions like a calculator, it’s just much more powerful CPU processing power. The main function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logic operations on data retrieved from memory or from the information entered via some hardware. CPU controlled using a set of instructions the computer software. The software can be run by the CPU to read from the storage media. These instructions are then stored in advance in physical memory (RAM), where each instruction will be given a unique address called a memory address. Furthermore, the CPU can access data in RAM to determine the address of the desired data.

When a program is executed, the data flow from the RAM to a unit called a bus, which connects the CPU with RAM. The data are then decoded by using the unit process known as pendekoder instructions that can translate the instructions. The data then travels to the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) that perform calculations and comparisons. Data can be stored temporarily by the ALU in a memory location called registers that can be retrieved quickly for processing. ALU can perform certain operations, including addition, multiplication, subtraction, testing conditions on the data in the register, to transmit the processing results back into physical memory, storage media, or register if will process the results of processing anymore. During this process occurs, a unit within the CPU, called the program counter will monitor the instruction successfully executed so that instruction can be executed in the correct and appropriate.

Categories: Sistem & Teknologi Informasi


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