Resume Chapter 11 : Decision Support System
By Langgeng Setyono
Definition Decision Making
Defined as an act of choosing among various alternative solutions to solving the problem. Meanwhile problem solving a response to things that go well and the thing goes bad in a way defines the problem as the events are dangerous and harmful for the company.
Phase of problem solving can be divided into four, namely: Intelligence activity is to look around the environment conditions that must be solved. Activity Design that is discovering, developing and analyzing the actions that may be performed. Electoral activity of choosing a particular action of the alternative actions available. Activity assessment is examining the options then.
In the approach to solve the problem have to use the system. Approach is a system that consists of a series of steps preparatory undertakings, defining effort, the effort of the last-solving efforts. The importance of a systems approach, namely:
1. Managers prevent it from being confused with the complexity of the company.
2. Stresses have good aim.
3. Stressed the importance of all parts of the organization to work together.
4. Raised the relationship between the organization and their environment.
5. Set a high value on information obtained from the input that cabe achieved through a closed cycle system
Elements of the problem solving process. How many elements in the solution of this problem consists of issues, standards, information, solutions, alternative solutions and limitations. In solving the problem must choose the best solution there are three steps in selecting a solution that is an analysis of the problem, the assessment carried out by a manager, and offers. In understanding the problem must be distinguished between problems and symptoms of the differences between them are: symptom is a condition resulting problems. Meanwhile problem is the cause of the symptoms proficiency level. Problems can be divided into 2 structured problem and not the problem.
Decision support system
DSS concept began in the 1960s with a timesharing computer. For the first time a person can interact directly with the computer without having to go through the information specialist.
New in 1971, the term DSS was created by Anthony Gorry and Michael S. Scott Morton. They feel the need for a framework to guide the application of computers to management decisions and develop what is known as the Gorry and Scott Morton Grid. Where the Grid Matrix is based on the concept of Simon the programmed and unprogrammed decisions and management levels of Robert N. Anthony.
Gorry and Scott Morton develop the types of decisions according to the structure of matter, from structured to unstructured. To explain the level of top management, middle and bottom, using the name Anthony strategic planning, management control and operational control.
The data and information entered into the database of the corporate environment. Contents of the database used by the three software subsystems:
1. Report Writer Software; generate periodic reports and special reports ..
2. Mathematical models; produce information as a result of a simulation involving one or several components of physical systems company.
3. GDS Software allows some problem solving, working together as a group to reach a solution.
Model is a simplification of something; models describe the phenomenon – an object or an activity.
Mathematical model of a type that was instrumental in the DSS. These models can be grouped in three dimensions – the influence of time, the level of confidence, and the ability to achieve optimization.
Static or Dynamic Model
Static models do not include time as a variable, the model corresponds to a situation at a particular point in time, such as a photograph. While Dynamic Models include time as a variable, and describe the behavior of entities from time to time, like a movie.
Artificial intelligence is the activity providers such as computer machines. With the ability to display behaviors that are considered as intelligent as humans. Artificial intelligence applied in the business world, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms and intelligent agents.
Expert systems are computer programs that attempt to represent knowledge and human knowledge in the form of heuristics. Heuristics are rules of good guessing. This expert system is designed by an engineer who has special expertise in the field of artificial intelligence. In the expert system consists of artificial neural network that is the human brain. Genetics Algorithms for solving process problems. Intelligent agents to perform tasks on the computer repeatedly.
The Concept Of GDSS (Group Decision Support Systems )
DSS research initially aimed at supporting individuals, but lately the group decision-making needs attention. Most of the activities of the GDSS has so far focused on improving communication by providing a supportive environment settings.
GDSS is a computer-based systems that support groups of people engaged in a task (goal) and that provide a common interface to a shared environment.
Assumptions underlying the GDSs is communication – between members of the group – which better enables better decisions, with discussions focused on issues.in order to better define the problem, which can further identify alternatives, evaluate alternatives as well as to increase the possibility of reaching a good solution. In the DSS features two unique features that parallel communication and anoumitas
In no name GDSS decision room is a small group of people to meet in person this room helping people to communicate through the equipment and place equipment.Decision of the local area network that allows a small group of people to meet in person so the members can interact via LAN.Legislative session if there is a group of people who are too big for a decision space will be needed legislative session size is large then it will limit the legislature.Conference on mediation by the computer. some virtual application communication between large groups that have members scattered in different geographical regions. These applications are collectively known as remote conferencing application.