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Role of Database in an Organization

Computer technology, including DBMS’s, is the motivating and enabling basis for the rapidly expanding field of MIS. A management information system is an integrated, user machine system for providing information to support operations, management, analysis, and decision making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computer hardware and software, manual procedures, models for analysis, planning, control and decision making and a data base.

Managers at all levels use similar data. Operating managers require data which is timely, precise, detailed, internal and historical. Upper level managers need data which is aggregated, external as well as internal, future oriented as well as historical and covering a longer span time. An effective MIS cannot be built without viable data management tools. Such tools were not generally available previously. Moreover, most organizations did not effectively use DBMS technology until two decades before. An important key to a successful MIS is the effective management of an organization’s data resources.

Role of the Database in an Organization
An organization is traditionally viewed as a three level pyramid-operational activities at the bottom, management planning and control activities in the middle and strategic planning and policy making in top management. The corporate database contains data relating to the organization, its operations, its plan and its environment.

State of Database Management In Organizations
The needs of organizations and management are changeable, diverse and often ill-defined, yet they must be met. Added to these are outside pressures from federal taxing authorities, federal securities agencies and legislators making privacy laws. Both internal and external forces demand that organizations exercise control over their data resources.

Decisions and actions in the organization are based upon the image contained in the corporate database. Managerial decisions direct the actions at the operational level and produce plans and expectations which are formally captured and stored in the corporate database. Transactions record actual results of organizational activities and environmental changes and update the database to maintain a current image.

People in the organization query the database for information to conduct the daily operations. Middle management receives reports comparing actual results to previously recorded plans and expectations. The corporate database provides data for modeling and forecasting which support top management needs. The corporate database supports all levels of an organization and is vital for operations, decision making and the management process.

While management seeks to control data resources, computer applications grow. When a corporation achieves comprehensive support of its operations, for instance, computer applications begin to penetrate into higher management levels. With comprehensive database support of operations, an MIS can mature as a tool for planning, control and decision making. Earlier, in the development of an MIS, an organization must appoint a DBA to manage its data resources.

While an organization’s move toward the database approach can be hastened by the acquisition of a DBMS, the latter is not necessary. Most commercially available DBMS’s fall substantially short of ideal capabilities, making their acquisition an interim measure - a move to help the organization learn how to operate in a managed data environment. In seeking DBMS capability, building one’s own system is unrealistic except for large organizations with special needs, such as a very large database or large volumes of known transactions requiring rapid online response.

Data is a vital resource in an organization and must be managed. The organizational database is an essential component in a management information system. Of the four components of a data processing system, attention to data has lagged behind the development of machines and programming technology. Taking a database approach requires an organization to focus on data as a valued resource. Data is separate from programs and application systems which use it.


What is CPU?

If you’re in the market for a new computer, it’s necessary to understand the function of a Control Processing Unit(CPU). Also known as the Central Processing Unit or processor, the CPU is essentially the “brains” of your computer. Without the CPU, you wouldn’t be able to play games, type research papers, or surf the Internet. Your computer would basically be a very expensive paperweight.

Sometimes people mistakenly believe the case or chassis of a computer is the CPU. However, a CPU is an internal component of the computer. You can’t see it from the outside of the system; you’d have to peek inside and remove both the CPU heatsink and fan to get a good look.

The first CPUs were used in the early 1960s. They were custom designed as part of a larger computer, making them prohibitively expensive. Once engineers figured out how to mass produce the CPU, personal computers became more affordable for the average American. With the introduction of the integrated circuit in the late 1970s, it became possible for smaller CPUs to be manufactured as well. This helped transform computers from large, bulky devices that took up entire rooms to more manageable desktop and laptop models.

CPU is responsible for handling all instructions and calculation it receives from other hardware components in the computer and software programs running on the computer.

Below is an important component of the CPU.

Control Unit
The control unit is a part of the processor that be able to regulate the course of the program. This component is present in all CPU. CPU charge of controlling a computer so that synchronization occurs between the components work in carrying out operations functions. Included in the control unit is the responsibility of taking instructions-instructions from main memory and determine the type of instruction. If there are instructions for arithmetic or logic comparison, the control unit will send instructions to the ALU (Aritmathic Logic Unit). Results of processing data carried by the control unit to the main memory again to be saved, and in time will be presented to the output device. Thus the task of the control unit are:

  • Regulate and control the means of input and output
  • Taking instructions from main memory
  • Retrieve data from main memory (if needed) for processing
  • Send the instruction to the ALU if any arithmetic or logical comparisons
  • Overseeing the work of the ALU
  • Save the results of the process to the main memory

Register is a small storage devices that have high enough access speed, which is used to store data and instructions that are processed. This memory is temporary, usually used to store data if or when the data for further processing. If the analogy, these registers can be likened to a memory in the brain when we do data processing manually, so the brain can be likened to a CPU, which contains the memories, the control unit that regulates all activities of the body and have a place to perform calculations and logical comparisons.

Aritmathic Logic Unit(ALU)
ALU is a part of the CPU assigned to perform arithmetic operations and logic operations defined by instructions. ALU often called machine language for this section ALU consists of two parts, the units of arithmetic and boolean logic units, each of which has its own task specification. The main task of the ALU is to perform all arithmetic calculations (math), which occurs in accordance with the instructions of the program. ALU perform all arithmetic operations on the basis of the sum so that the electronic circuitry used is called adder.

How CPU Work?
When data and processing-instruction is inserted into the devices, once placed first in the RAM (via Input-storage), if the instruction form fit to the Control Unit in-storage program, but if the form of data accommodated in the Working-storage). If the register is ready to accept work on execution, then the Control Unit would take instructions from the program-storage be submitted to the Instruction Register, while the memory address that contains the instructions are stored in the Program Counter. While the data taken by the Control Unit of Working-storage to be accommodated in General-purpose registers (in this case on Operand-register). If the workmanship is done based instruction is arithmatika and logic, the ALU will take over the operation to do based instruction set. The result is stored in the Accumulator. If the result of processing has been completed, the Control Unit will retrieve the results of processing in the accumulator to fit back into the working-storage. If progress overall has been completed, the Control Unit will pick up the processing of the Working-storage to fit into the Output-storage. Then the rest of Output-storage, processing results will be displayed to the output devices.


Did You Know?

Internet has become a phenomenon in the life of modern society.  Internet has permeated many aspects of community life of personal life, education, journalism, business, until the government. Internet Presence in the midst of life of modern society is certainly an impact, both positive and negative.

Internet is a connection between several computer type and network in the world that different operating system or application which the connections take the advantage of telephone and satellite progress using standard protocol that we known as TCP/IP.

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From this video that made in 2009, there are a lot of amazing data from information technology and internet. A surge of new technologies and social media innovations is altering the media landscape. Convergence is everywhere. It’s easier than ever to reach a large audience, but harder than ever to really connect with it. These changes are affecting the way people behave. Are you ready for future?

Well over a million books are published worldwide every year. A google book search scanner can digitize a thousand pages every hour. Americans have access to a trillion web pages, 65.000 iphone apps, 10.500 radio stations, 5500 magazines, 200+ cable tv networks. Newspaper circulation is down 7 million over the last 25 years. But in the last 5 years, unique readers of online newspaper are up 30 million.

In 2009, traditional advertising is in steep decline. Meanwhile, digital advertising is growing rapidly.  47% of broadcast television viewers say they’pay for ad-less programming. 47% of broadcast television viewers say they’d pay for ad-less programming. More video was uploaded to youtube in the last 2 months. 250 million, the number of unique visitors myspace, youtube, facebook get every month, collectively. 95% of all songs downloaded last year weren’t paid for. This figure would increase this year and many more amazing facts on the internet.

Too much data is stunning in the world of information technology, this is indeed the task of statistical institutions to recapitalize all the data. But why the majority of these data is the result stunning recap of the U.S.? What about Indonesia?

Indonesia, what is the value derived from a country whose population is more than 2 million of it? According to alexa, facebook become top site in Indonesia. I get the data that 6 out of 10 Indonesian internet users visit social networking sites. Internet activity most often used not to open or transact online news, but to open a web-based email by 59 percent, 58 percent of instant messenger, open social networking sites 58 percent, the search engine 56 percent, 47 percent read online news. After that just for other purposes. To open an internet banking only 5 percent. For online transactions? Entry last sequence, only 3 percent. Of course, Indonesia will not access.

The factor of the stakeholders and the regulatory infrastructure of government is a big homework for the government and operators in Indonesia. Our government should be responsive to look retarded internet in Indonesia. And if the majority of Indonesian people could realize that the internet service is one of the main service (same with the importance of electricity, water or fuel), then people can make amends, start using the internet properly and get maximum benefit.

However, most people do not have a paradigm that internet is important. Part of our society still view and utilize the internet limited to open facebook, chat or go to porn sites. Actually the theory is easy. Indonesia has great potential to exploit technological advances in the world. It can be started from basic education, aided by the direction and supervision of parents, future generations of Indonesia will be more secure within using internet.


Information Technology Effect on My Life

Information technology  describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate,  and disseminate program. That is the scientific language of the sense of a technology who people regarded as computer technology.

Since 2000, information technology is growing rapidly. This is what spurred public debate in two different generations. Today, we can see children as young as 8 years old can use technology based tools such as mobile phones or just word processing programs like microsoft word properly. On the other side, old people may not be able to use technology well, even for the mobilization of a mouse cannot be done well. Technology has two different meanings in its influence on life that has a positive value also has a negative value. Back on the lives of individuals, it is a choice and depending on their utilization.

On me, the technology has great influence, both positive and negative in my life. Sometimes it can make life easier, yes indeed with the technology, the job can get maximum efficiency and effectiveness when used correctly. However, there is likely a very easy job instead take a long time due to inappropriate use. In addition, the efficiency and effectiveness of existing technology in use makes the effort to get something even less desirable. I became lazy to do something that should be using more energy. This is the biggest problem to me or some people in the community.

Right now, one of the causes of errors using that time because of the many social networking sites that offer various facilities to me (the user). Before working on tasks that require a reference from the internet, as if obliged to open a social networking site that makes time for working more assignments. Tasks that should be done within 15 minutes, this can be up to one hour. This is very detrimental to me. Actually not a problem of the social networking site that should be debated, but it's only a matter of habit or the desire to use the site for the pleasure that it less useful.

Remembering the negative side of technology use on me, do not make me have to avoid the technology. The only way to be able to use technology properly is by recognizing, studying, and understanding what it is technology. Since graduating junior  high school, I school at SMK Telkom Sandhy Putra Malang that teach students about computer technology and telecommunications. Slowly I know what is computer, what is telecommunications, what is digital, and others.

Technology is widespread, we can learn many things and use appropriate community needs. I have ever experienced, when my friend had difficulty using software, I can help him without I went to the location. Just need an internet connection and a remote computer software, I can fix the damage to my friend's computer software. It's easier for me, I could save time and energy.

We can see the positive impact of technology also on society that allows me. Like the e-banking from a bank in Indonesia, when I was away from the parents, for my pocket money can be shipped easily without going through the post office. With the online registration system at Brawijaya University, I do not need to come, take, and fill out the form provided. Lots of convenience which I get from the use of information technology in everyday life beyond the negative impacts can be mitigated as possible. Do not be afraid to recognize information technology, study, understand, and use correctly.