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Blog mahasiswa Universitas Brawijaya

Rangkuman DAA

RANGKUMAN DAA

  1. Pengertian Desain Analisis dan Algoritma

Desain dan analisis algoritma adalah suatu cabang khusus dalam ilmu komputer yang mempelajari karakteristik dan performa dari suatu algoritma dalam menyelesaikan masalah, terlepas dari implementasi algoritma tersebut. Dalam cabang disiplin ini algoritma dipelajari secara abstrak, terlepas dari sistem komputer atau bahasa pemrograman yang digunakan. Algoritma yang berbeda dapat diterapkan pada suatu masalah dengan kriteria yang sama. Kompleksitas dari suatu algoritma merupakan ukuran seberapa banyak komputasi yang dibutuhkan algoritma tersebut untuk menyelesaikan masalah. Secara informal, algoritma yang dapat menyelesaikan suatu permasalahan dalam waktu yang singkat memiliki kompleksitas yang rendah, sementara algoritma yang membutuhkan waktu lama untuk menyelesaikan masalahnya mempunyai kompleksitas yang tinggi.

2. Komponen yang harus ada dalam merancang algoritma

 

1.  Komponen masukan : terdiri dari pemilihan variable, jenis variable, tipe variable,       konstanta dan parameter (dalam fungsi).

2.  Komponen keluaran: merupakan tujuan dari perancangan algoritma dan program. Permasalahan yang diselesaikan dalam algoritma dan program harus ditampilkan dalam komponen keluaran. Karakteristik keluaran yang baik adalah menjawab permasalahan dan tampilan yang ramah

3.  Komponen proses : merupakan bagian utama dan terpenting dalam merancang sebuah algoritma. Dalam bagian ini terdapat logika masalah, logika algoritma (sintaksis dan semantik), rumusan, metode (rekursi, perbandingan, penggabungan, pengurangan dll).

 

3. Jenis- jenis Algoritma

 

Jenis-jenis Algoritma terdapat beragam klasifikasi algoritma dan setiap klasifikasi mempunyai alasan tersendiri. Salah satu cara untuk melakukan klasifikasi jenis-jenis algoritma adalah dengan memperhatikan paradigma dan metode yang digunakan untuk mendesain algoritma tersebut. Beberapa paradigma yang digunakan dalam menyusun suatu algoritma akan dipaparkan dibagian ini. Masing-masing paradigma dapat digunakan dalam banyak algoritma yang berbeda.

Divide and Conquer, paradigma untuk membagi suatu permasalahan besar menjadi permasalahan-permasalahan yang lebih kecil. Pembagian masalah ini dilakukan terus menerus sampai ditemukan bagian masalah kecil yang mudah untuk dipecahkan. Singkatnya menyelesaikan keseluruhan masalah dengan membagi masalah besar dan kemudian memecahkan permasalahan-permasalahan kecil yang terbentuk.

Dynamic programming, paradigma pemrograman dinamik akan sesuai jika digunakan pada suatu masalah yang mengandung sub-struktur yang optimal dan mengandung beberapa bagian permasalahan yang tumpang tindih. Paradigma ini sekilas terlihat mirip dengan paradigma Divide and Conquer, sama-sama mencoba untuk membagi permasalahan menjadi sub permasalahan yang lebih kecil, tapi secara intrinsik ada perbedaan dari karakter permasalahan yang dihadapi.

Metode serakah, Sebuah algoritma serakah mirip dengan sebuah Pemrograman dinamik, bedanya jawaban dari submasalah tidak perlu diketahui dalam setiap tahap dan menggunakan pilihan “serakah” apa yang dilihat terbaik pada saat itu.

 

Adapun jenis-jenis algoritma yang lain adalah :

1. Bahasa Semu (pseudo code)

yaitu dengan menggunakan bahasa sehari-hari, tetapi harus jelas dan struktur.

2. Diagram Alir/Alur (Flowchart)

yaitu dengan membuat suatu penulisan atau penyajian algoritma berupa diagram yang                 menggambarkan susunan alur logika dari suatu permasalahan.

 

 

 

 

 

4. Penggunaan Algoritma

 

Dengan algoritma, kita dapat mengatasi masalah dari yang sederhana sampai yang kompleks sekalipun. Namun, seorang user harus mampu membuat suatu program dengan menggunakan bahasa yang difahami oleh komputer. Sebelum disajikan dalam bentuk bahasa pemrogaman, sebaiknya kita membuat diagram alir (Flow Chart) dan Pseudocode. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar dapat mempermudah kerja atau mempermudah dalam membuat program. Selain itu, algoritma dapat mengatasi masalah logika dan masalah matematika dengan cara berurutan, tetapi kadang-kadang algoritma tidak selalu berurutan, hal ini dikenal dengan proses percabangan. Pada dasarnya, komputer adalah mesin digital, artinya komputer hanya bisa mengenal kondisi ada arus listrik (biasanya dilambangkan dengan 1) dan tidak ada arus listrik (biasanya dilambangkan dengan 0). Dengan kata lain, kita harus menggunakan sandi 0 dan 1 untuk melakukan pemrogaman komputer. Bahasa pemrogaman yang menggunakan sandi 0 dan 1 ini disebut bahasa mesin. Karena bahasa mesin sangat susah, maka muncul ide untuk melambangkan untaian sandi 0 dan 1 dengan singkatan kata yang lebih mudah difahami manusia biasa disebut dengan mnemonic code. Bahasa pemrogaman yang menggunakan singkatan kata ini disebut bahasa assembly. Program algoritma harus komplit, nyata, dan jelas. Meskipun tugas algoritma tidak menghasilkan solusi, tetapi proses harus berakhir hal ini disebut dengan semi algorithm (prosedur akan berjalan terus atau biasa disebut dengan perulangan). Intinya kita tidak boleh menambah masalah, akan tetapi kita harus mampu menyelesaikan masalah untuk mendapat hasil yang tepat.

5. Kesimpulan

 

Berdasarkan uraian di atas, dapat disimpulkan:

  1.  Algoritma adalah suatu prosedur yang tepat untuk memecahkan masalah dengan menggunakan bantuan komputer serta menggunakan suatu bahasa pemrogaman.
  2.  Fungsi algoritma adalah untuk mempermudah kerja atau memudahkan kita dalam       membuat program atau biasa di sebut sebagai Problem Solving. Selain itu, algoritma dapat mengatasi masalah logika dan masalah Matematika.
  3. Kriteria program algoritma harus komplit, nyata, dan jelas. Meskipun tugas algoritma tidak menghasilkan solusi, tetapi proses harus berakhir hal ini disebut dengan semi algorithm (prosedur akan berjalan terus atau biasa disebut dengan perulangan). Intinya kita tidak boleh menambah masalah, akan tetapi kita harus mampu menyelesaikan masalah untuk mendapat hasil yang tepat.

 

 

Sumber :

 

  1. Materi Dasar Algoritma S1 Sistem Komputer Universitas Diponegoro
  2. Makalah Desain Analisis dan Algoritma oleh Galih Pranowo, Jurusan Matematika Ilmu Komputer,Fakultas Sains Terapan Institut Sains & Teknologi Akprind Yogyakarta.

 

 

ATM MENJADI BOM WAKTU BAGI PENGGUNANYA

Kartu ATM

ATM MENJADI BOM WAKTU BAGI PENGGUNANYA

Kartu ATM adalah kartu khusus yang diberikan oleh bank kepada pemilik rekening, yang dapat digunakan untuk bertransaksi secara elektronis atas rekening tersebut. Pada saat kartu digunakan bertransaksi, dana yang ada di dalam rekening akan langsung berkurang.[1] ATM semakin populer dari waktu ke waktu karena aspek kemudahan dan keefektifan yang ditawarkan. Di era modern sekarang ini, hampir semua kalangan dipastikan memiliki kartu ATM karena semua transaksi dituntut cepat dan praktis.

Namun, di balik suksesnya perkembangan ATM (dilihat dari segi penggunanya yang terus meningkat) [2], perkembangan teknologi yang digunakan masih saja berbasis magnetic stripe (teknologinya tidak up to date). Akibatnya, banyak kelemahan teknologi tersebut yang sudah terungkap dan dimanfaatkan oleh pihak–pihak yang tidak bertanggung jawab. Teknologi kartu magnetik secara inheren tidak aman karena kartu menyimpan data-data secara plain atau tanpa enkripsi sehingga dapat dibaca oleh alat pembaca (magnetic stripe reader) manapun. Sekali terbaca, maka dengan menggunakan perangkat magnetic stripe writer, kartu baru yang memiliki fungsi identik dengan kartu asli dapat dibuat dengan mudah (cloning). [3] Pelaku menggunakan teknik skimming, di mana sang pelaku membuat kartu baru yang datanya masih kosong kemudian mengisinya dengan data yang identik dengan data yang terdapat di kartu ATM yang asli. Proses penggandaan ini akan menjadi lebih sempurna apabila pelaku mendapatkan PIN dari kartu ATM asli. Caranya sangat mudah, dengan hanya memasang kamera tersembunyi yang mengarah ke tombol PIN di mesin ATM, PIN rahasia dari kartu ATM asli akan terlihat.

Hal itu menunjukkan bahwa teknologi pada kartu ATM yang sekarang beredar sudah sangat ketinggalan jaman. Untuk mengatasinya, Bank Indonesia (BI) akan memulai implementasi kepada seluruh industri perbankan untuk melakukan migrasi kartu debet atau ATM dari magnetic stripe menjadi chip. [4] BI memberi batas waktu hingga tahun 2015 bagi seluruh bank di Indonesia untuk  melakukan migrasi ke chip. [4] Kartu berbasis chip dianggap lebih aman daripada magnetic stripe karena kartu berbasis chip dapat menjalankan berbagai algoritma dan protokol keamanan yang cukup kompleks untuk memenuhi beberapa kriteria keamanan. Namun pada kenyataannya, migrasi kartu magnetic ke kartu chip tidak segera ditindaklanjuti oleh pihak perbankan karena banyak faktor yang menghambat. Faktor–faktor tersebut di antaranya mahalnya biaya yang harus dikeluarkan untuk mengganti semua kartu ATM yang sudah ada dengan basis chip dan keharusan menyediakan kartu ATM berbasis chip baru bagi nasabah baru, serta penggantian sistem chip di seluruh unit bank pusat maupun cabang dan di mesin–mesin ATM  yang tersebar luas di berbagai titik.

Dilihat dari aspek keamanannya, migrasi kartu ATM berbasis magnetic stripe ke kartu ATM berbasis chip sangatlah penting. Apabila migrasi tidak segera dilakukan dan jutaan nasabah di Indonesia masih menggunakan kartu ATM berbasis magnetic stripe yang sudah sangat ketinggalan jaman, ancaman untuk menjadi korban pembobolan kartu ATM masih akan terus menghantui seperti bom waktu yang kapan saja bisa meledak. Tidak terlalu berlebihan apabila saya mengatakan demikian, karena pada kenyataanya memang sudah banyak kelemahan yang terungkap dari teknologi kartu ATM tersebut. Alat untuk melakukan pembobolan bebas terjual di pasaran dan ternyata memang tidak perlu keterampilan khusus untuk melakukan pembobolan seperti itu. [5]

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENSI

  1. Bank Indonesia. Mengenal Kartu Debit & ATM. Diakses tanggal 25 Agustus
  2. Aco, Hasanuddin. Kompas, 2011. Migrasi ATM ke Chip, BNI Siapkan 50 Juta Dollar. Diakses tanggal 25 Agustus 2011
  3. Sulistyo, Budi. 2010. Keamanan Penggunaan Kartu Berbasis Kartu chip dalam Sistem Pembayaran. Diakses tanggal 2 Agustus 2011
  4. http://finance.detik.com/read/2011/06/17/171944/1662790/5/migrasi-kartu-atm-ke-chip-dimulai-bulan-ini
  5. CHIP Team. 2010. Aman Bertransaksi Lewat ATM. Diakses tanggal 25 Agustus 2011

Rancangan Mikroprosesor 8080

1.    Peta Memori

Alamat 8  bit
2000h (awal)

2FFFH (akhir)

RAM1  (4kB)
3000h ( awal )3FFFH ( akhir ) RAM2  (4kB)
9000h (awal)

9FFFH (akhir)

ROM1  (4kB)
10000 ( awal )

AFFFH ( akhir )

ROM2  (4kB)

2.    Peta I/O

50h Port Input 1
55h Port Input 2
50h Port Output 1
62h Port Output 2

3.    Daftar Memori

Komponen Alamat Heksa Saluran Bus Alamat (Biner)
A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
RAM 1 Awal
(2000h)
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Akhir

(2FFFH)

0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ROM 2 Awal

(9000h)

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Akhir

(9FFFH)

1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
RAM 2 Awal

( 3000h )

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Akhir

( 3FFFH )

0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ROM 2 Awal

( 10000)

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Akhir

( AFFFH )

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4.    Daftar piranti I/O

Komponen Alamat

(heksa)

Saluran alamat I/O (biner)
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
Port input1 50h 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Port input2 55h 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Port Output1 50h 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Port Output2 62h 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0

Rancangan Sistem Mikroprosesor 8080

1.    Peta Memori

Alamat 8 bit
3000h

3FFFH

RAM (4kB)
7000h

7FFFH

ROM (4kb)

2.    Peta I/O

70h Port Input
80h Port Output

3.    Daftar Memori

Komponen Alamat Heksa Saluran Bus Alamat (Biner)
A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
RAM Awal
(3000h)
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Akhir

(3FFFH)

0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
ROM Awal

(7000h)

0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Akhir

(7FFFH)

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4.    Daftar piranti I/O

Komponen Alamat

(heksa)

Saluran alamat I/O (biner)
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
Port input 70h 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Port output 80h 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5. Decoder Memori

Penjelasan Mikroprosesor

Setiap komputer yang kita gunakan didalamnya pasti terdapat mikroprosesor. Mikroprosesor, dikenal juga dengan sebutan Central Processing Unit (CPU) artinya unit pengolahan pusat. CPU adalah pusat dari proses perhitungan dan pengolahan data yang terbuat dari sebuah lempengan yang disebut “chip”. Chip sering disebut juga dengan “Integrated Circuit (IC)”, bentuknya kecil, terbuat dari lempengan silikon dan bisa terdiri dari 10 juta transistor. Mikroprosesor adalah sebuah IC(Integrated Circuit) yang digunakan sebagai otak/pengolah utama dalam sebuah sistem komputer. Mikroprosesor berbentuk persegi panjang dengan sejumlah kaki komponen didua sisi panjangnya atau bujur sangkar dengan kaki dengan kaki komponen di keempat kakinya.pada bagian atasnya tercetak jenis atau nama IC,produsen,dan keterangan lain.
Mikroprosesor berfungsi sebagai otak sistem. Ia mengatur kerja sisiem berdasarkan urutan program yang telah ditetapkan. Ia mengatur keluar masuknya data dari/ke antar bagian dalam sistem. Ia juga mengatur aktivitas keluar/masuk data dari/ke perangat diluar sistem.

Mikroprosesor secara umum terdiri dari: ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit),
Control and Timing Unit, dan Array Register (Register Larik). ALU berfungsi sebagai
bagian yang melakukan operasi aritmatik dan logika dalam memproses data. Bagian
ini yang melakukan operasi bagian dalam mikroprosesor. Sedangkan Register Larik
berfungsi untuk menyimpan data sementara hasil proses oleh mikroprosesor.
Fungsinya hampir sama dengan piranti memori mikroprosesor dengan perbedaan
bahwa: Memori berada diluar mikroprosesor sedangkan register berada didalam
mikroprosesor, Memori diidentifikasi dengan alamat sedangkan register diidentifikasi
oleh nama register oleh mikroprosesor. Bagian Timing & Control berfungsi sebagai
pembangkit daur-waktu untuk antarmuka dengan peripheral pada bus alamat, data dan
kontrol. Selain itu mengendalikan bus-bus tambahan lainnya seperti interupsi, DMA
dan lain sebagainya, tergantung arsitektur mikroprosesor itu sendiri. Arsitektur
mikroprosesor pada saat ini banyak ragamnya, mulai yang paling sederhana hingga
yang komplek.

All about HTML

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language used to create a web page, featuring a variety of information in an Internet web browser and a simple hypertext formatting is written into an ASCII format file to generate a form of the integrated display. In other words, files created in word processing software and saved into an ASCII format so that it becomes normal home page with HTML commands. Starting from a previously widely used language in the world of publishing and printing called SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), HTML is a standard that is widely used to display web pages. HTML is now an Internet standard defined and controlled its use by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). HTML created by TEAM Caillau collaboration with Berners-lee robert when they worked at CERN in 1989 (CERN is a high-energy physics research institute in Geneva).
HTML form tag code that instructs the browser to produce in accordance with the desired appearance. A file is an HTML file can be opened using a web browser such as Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft Internet Explorer. HTML also can be identified by opening e-mail application or from PDAs and other software that has browser capabilities. By using HTML commands allow users to perform the following tasks:
• Determining the size and flow of writing.
• integrating images with text.
• Creating Links.
• integrate the sound file and recording live images.
• Create an interactive form. [2]
HTML documents are similar to ordinary paper documents, only in this document is an article can contain instructions that are marked with codes or better known as a particular TAG. For example if you want to make the writing appear to be thick like: LOOKING THICK, then the writing is done by: <b> LOOKING THICK </ b>. Signs <b> used to activate the bold instruction, followed by writings that want bold, and ends with a </ b> to disable these bold. HTML is more emphasis on the depiction of the components of the structure and formatting in web pages rather than determine its apperance.Whereas web browser is used to interpret the composition of pages to the style of the built-in web browser using the kind of writing, tabs, colors, lines, and smoothing the desired text to a computer that displays web pages. One of the things important about the existence of HTML is the availability of Lingua franca (language of communication) between computers with different capabilities. Macintosh users can not see the same view as the view is visible in Windows-based PC. Users of Microsoft Windows would not be able to see the same view as the display shown on the users who use Sun Microsystems products. however, users can view all the web pages that are formatted and contain Graphic and Web Links. [3]
TML allows us to view or edit file formats that we will send it via online media. Some things can be done in determining the file format is:
• We can show a group of words in several sizes that can be used for titles, headings and so forth.
• You can display text in printed form thick
• We can show a group of words in italics
• You can display the manuscript in the form of letters that are similar to a typewriter typing results
• We can vary the size of the paper for a particular character.
Broadly speaking, there are 4 types of HTML elements:
• structural. sign which determines the level or levels of an article (eg, <h1> Golf </ h1> will tell the browser to display the “Golf” as big bold showing as Heading 1
• presentational. signs that determine the appearance of an article is not concerned with the level of the text (for example, <b> boldface </ b> will feature bold. presentational tags are now being replaced by CSS and is not recommended to set the display text,
• hypertext. signs related to part of the document or link to another document (eg, <a href=”http://www.wikipedia.org/”> Wikipedia </ a> will show Wikipedia as a hyperlink to a particular URL),
• Elements of widgets that make other objects such as buttons (<button>), list (<li>), and the horizontal line (<hr>), The concept of hypertext in HTML allows us to create a link on a group of words or phrases to go to anywhere in the World Wide Web,
There are three kinds of links that we can use:
• Links to other parts of the page
• Links to other pages in a single web site
• Links to resources or a different web site.
• HTML does not distinguish between the use of uppercase or lowercase letters of an element. An element consists of HTML tags and text contained in these tags. This tag is declared by a less than sign (<) and greater sign (>).

Tags are usually a couple who called with: 1. Initial tag, expressed in the form of name> tag> 2. End tag, expressed in the form </ tag name> Format: text displayed name> tag> </ name tag> Example: to display text in italics text format text is visible tilt in your browser with HTML commands <i> This text is visible tilted in your browser </ i>.
BODY section, which is expressed with tags <BODY> … </ BODY>, is the body or contents of an HTML document where you put the information to be displayed in a browser.

source = http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_markup_language

System Analyst

The problem that usually arises in the motorcycle rental business is about the completeness of a motorcycle before and after borrowed, borrowed motorcycle type, time, duration of hire and the cost of borrowing which must dibayarkan.For the first problem is the completeness of the motorcycle, usually occurring misunderstandings between customer and the owner of motorcycle rental business.It can be caused by a tenant or employee rental motorcycle.For example, A tenant renting a motorcycle in full condition, but when returned, the bike is not complete anymore, let’s say his rearview mirror missing one. Automatic debate will occur between A (tenants) and managers if A does not want to admit that he is the cause of incompleteness itu.Atau motorcycle when its position is reversed, at the beginning of this borrowing process occurs motorcycle is incomplete (eg only the problem of rear-view mirror), and now return the new manager began to demand to costumer.Whereas was not the fault of the tenant because it’s been since the beginning of the motorcycle as like that.For solve this problem, the manager should first complete record of all motorcycles that will be lent.From the borrower must also thoroughly with a motorcycle that will make it easier rental.For manager should issue a letter of agreement and statement of the completeness of the borrowed motorcycle and then approved and signed by the tenant and manager of a bicycle rental business motorcycle.The type of the motorcycle can also be included at once into a personal statement too.To make no misunderstanding about the problem long time rental, preferably from the tenants and managers alike know how about the price.Better if the manager uses a database that set the time length of borrowing with a very detailed calculations that will be directly related rates to be paid by a detailed calculation peminjam.With This will facilitate the transaction if such there was a slight delay in the return or sebaliknya.Kemudian problem borrowing costs this bike, usually the manager is not consistent with the cost of current promotions offered in pamphlets / internet, etc.For example, the ad manager fix the price of a motorcycle X amount of Rp 35000.00. And there are prospective borrowers who are interested in motorcycles with the ad because it was considered cheap and prospective borrowers.Without thinking, we call it B , go straight to the bike rental location to do transaction.But in the fact the price offered is far more expensive.Of course B very disapointed.For overcome this problem, the professionalism required to apply the owner.If he has published his motorbike rental price, then that’s price maynot be changed at any time without prior notice first.So that tenants will not feel aggrieved.

Simak

Baca secara fonetik

e commerce & e business

Currently world trade no longer constrained by space and time. High human mobility demands world trade able to provide services and goods with instant accordance with consumer demand. To overcome these problems so now appears transactions using the Internet media to connect between producers and consumers. Transactions via the Internet is better known as E-Commerece and E-Business.
E-commerce is the process of selling products, services or information through electronic media view komputer.One of them is using a network ,called internet.So can be said that e-commerce is a business communications and commercial transactions that utilize computer networks (between seller and buyer). The development of information technology, especially in this case is the internet, is one factor supporting the development of e-commerce. The Internet is a global network that connects computers all over the world.So, allowing the interaction and communication between a party with other parties throughout the world.With using a computer system that can be connected to each other like this, the transaction can be done automatically and in a short time.With do the business electronically, companies can reduce the cost of expenditure for the purposes of sending the information transaction quickly.Process will also increase the productivity of firms.
e-commerce is part of e-business, where the scope of e-business more broadly, not just commerce but includes also collaboration among business partners, customer service, job vacancies,etc. In addition to the www network technologies, e-commerce also requires database technology, e-mail, and other forms of non-computer technology as well as other delivery systems, and means of payment for this e-commerce.
E-business is business through electronic media using computer.Business network covers many things, such as buying and selling, customer service, and other job-vacancies.E-business is the use of information technology to facilitate business processes, conduct e-commerce and provide cooperation to support the communication company.Almost same with e-commerce, the term “e-business” refers to the use of the Internet to trade.There is common terminology with e-mail, e-commerce, because both use the internet.

In principle, the term e-business is more extensive than the e-commerce, e-commerce philosophically is part of e-business.

The focus of e-commerce in the activity / mechanism of transactions conducted electronically / digitally then e-business has a broader scope, including:
1-activity relationship between the two companies
2-Interaction between the company and its customers
3-Collaboration between the company and its business partners
4-The exchange of information between companies and their business competitors etc.

The application of e-business is expected to increase revenuegeneration (profit) directly or indirectly.
Indirectly will also save the high cost (costcutting) because all diutomatisasi.Most of people who apply the concept of internet working, a small & medium-scale companies can easily work with the giant companies to offer various products and services to the customers.

BENEFITS OF e-business

The purpose of implementation of e-Business is to support the efficiency and integrity of data management of Human Resources, Finance, Supply Chain Management / Logistics Management. It also serves as a means of communication & information for the public and other stakeholders. With Internet-based system can be accessed anywhere in accordance with predetermined access rights.
Benefits of implementing e-Business are:
• Improve operational performance of the company,
• Increase opportunities for access to markets, suppliers, and funding is very broad,
• Improving the efficiency of the company,
• Simplify the management of company assets
• Improve the quality of customer service,
• Improve communication of all stakeholders,
• Overcoming the digital divide,
• Media promotion of corporate competencies,
• Streamlining of economic activity,
• Facilitate business transactions,
• Support dissemination of information widely,
• etc..

There are a few tips – tips in e-business:
• fix the first enterprise resource management systems in an integrated manner.
• Create an investment plan in detail and comprehensive technology.
• Determining the direction of technology investment to address long term needs.
• Create an organizational structure that is flexible and adaptive to change.
• Cooperating conducive with business partners (vendors, suppliers, financial institutions, etc.).
There are several methods of e-Business Development:
• Consideration of Commodity
• Infrastructure Development
• Planning Database
• Application Program Development
• Implementation and dissemination
E-Business Strategy Development
• Preparation of Development Plan
• Construction of a gradual / dynamic
• Need to prioritize implementation
• Selection of appropriate technology
• Preparation Resources
• Use Web-Hosting services
• Development of a third party submitted
• Cooperation with Institutions Internet service providers
Positive & Negative E-Business
Positive:
• The flow of new revenue that could be more promising and can not be found in traditional transaction systems.
• Can increase market exposure.
• Lowers operational costs.
• Expand coverage.
• Increase customer loyality.
• Shorten the time of production.
• Increase the revenue chain.
Negative
• Theft of confidential information that is valuable. Disorders that arise may disclose all such confidential information to parties who are not eligible and can result in big losses for the victim.
• Loss of business opportunities due to disruption of service. This error is non-technical errors such as electricity suddenly goes off or the network is not functioning.
• Loss of trust from consumers. This is due to various factors such as work done on purpose by others who try to slander the reputation of the company.
• Use of access to resources by unauthorized parties. Suppose that the burglary of a banking system by hackers, then move the number of someone else’s account into his own account.
• The loss was not unexpected. Disturbance caused by deliberate, dishonesty, improper business practices, and human factor errors or mistakes electronic system.
Factors Contributing to Failure of E-Business
• No commitment from top management intact.
• Implementation of e-business change management process is not followed.
• No professional information technology vendors who become business partners
• Poor communication infrastructure
• No selarasnya IT strategy with corporate strategy.
• The existence of security problems in transaction
• Lack of financial support
• Lack of regulations that support and protect the transacting parties (cyberlaw).

Intelligence was created and put into a machine (computer) in order to do a job like that can be human. Some kind of field that uses artificial intelligence, among others, an expert system computer games (games), fuzzy logic, neural networks and robotics.
Intelligence was created and put into a machine (computer) in order to do a job like that can be done.So, artificial intelligence is very relevant to the development of e-commerce and e business.Artificial intellegence  made this will underlie the development of information technology application in the field of e-commerce and e business.Higher artificial intelligence, mean that activities of e commerce and e business will be more  advanced.

Database

The database is a collection of information stored in the computer in a systematic way so that it can be checked using a computer program to obtain information from the database. Software used to manage and call the database query is called database management systems (database management system, DBMS). Database system studied in information science.
The term “database” originated from computer science. Note that similar to the data base was already there before the industrial revolution in the form of ledgers, receipts and collection of data related to the business.
The basic concept of the database is a collection of records, or pieces of knowledge. A structured database has an explanation of the types of facts that are stored in it, this explanation is called schema. The scheme describes the objects that represented a data base, and the relationship between these objects.
One area that can apply the program in which the database is a  motorcycle rental business.If not use the database in the motorcycle rental business, we must use the manual way to manage it.First we must create a table listing of the motorcycle – the motorcycle is available for lease . The table that contains the code of the motor, motor brand and rents, respectively – each motor.This tabel will allow subscribers to choose the motorcycle that he will rent as needed and make it easier for managers to recapitalize manganese his motorcycle data.Apabiotor code necessary made again is the customer data table, which contains the customer name, customer address, phone number of customers which is rented on behalf of the company, it is also included the company.This second tabel name will allow the managers to see who’s next his customer.Then it’s also made table to record the activities of each customer in the this motorcycle rental bussiness.Tabel lists customer name, brand motor borrowed, the amount borrowed motor, long payment.Tabel lending and deposit is very useful for both sides to remember borrowing activity ini.So that it will minimize the occurrence of mistakes.Then the fourth table is a table listing employees.Tabel divided into 2,  employee Bios table and table entry Presence of employee.Employee Bios tabel lists employee name, employee code, employee addresses, phone numbers of employees and their position.And table entry includes the name of employee presence, employee code, date and signature of employee.This tabel will facilitate managers to recognize employees and makes contact employees when a current employee needed. Entrance presence table useful for working activeness the employee.Because as we know the company only requires employees who are willing to work hard and diligently, then this table will determine whether an employee will be maintained or not.Tabel which shuld be made again is the table of income and expenditure so that we can know how much profit acquired by a company.

If we use the database in running motorcycle rental business, we will save more energy to create all the tables manually (written in a thick book), save time (by using the database will save time because the application using the computer and all program has been created), more efficient (because by using our database only requires a computer, when not using the database we need a lot of heavy books to record all the tables mentioned above to expedite this motorcycle rental business).
Similarly, articles on the real database can be applied in the various fields of business such as a motorcycle rental business, as well as other fields.

Sacmail

Email

Electronic mail, commonly called email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages across the Internet computer Networks. Originally, email was transmitted directly from one user to anothercomputer. This required both computers to be online at the same time, a lainstant message. Today’s email systems are based on a store and forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Users no longer need be online simultaneously and need only connect briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. or other

You can send and receive emails with interact to a website through a browser, such as Yahoo Mail, Hotmail, Bluebottle, Sacmail. The advantages of this web-based email is that you can send and receive emails with ease even though you’re traveling all over the world, even as all incoming mail, outgoing mail and folders saved on the email server, you also can use a PC and browser to manage your email .

Sacmail

Sacmail  is a domain controlled by two name servers at saccounty.net. Both are on different IP networks. The primary name server is ns1.saccounty.net. Incoming mail for sacmail.net is handled by one mail server at sacmail.net themselves.

excess of Sacmail:
1. In Sacmail can upload files in the form of photos, videos, etc.
2. on there sacmail chat application to interact with fellow users
3.terdapat free games that can be accessed fellow users

lack of Sacmail:
1. difficult to use
2. unpopular